in a nutshell
per la versione Italiana)
is a polyphonic reed instrument wich is made up of three canes. Since it
requires a constant flow of air it is played using circular breathing.
The longest cane is called tumbu and is always tuned on the tonic
and emits a single drone note in the low register.
The two chanters are called mancosa manna and mancosedda.
They have five holes each and the four located on the upper part are fingered
by the left and right hand, respectively.
The lowest hole on the melodic canes is called arrefinu or pentiadori
and is always tuned on a note that belongs to the triad built on the tonic.
When the finger holes are closed, the arrefinu plays and blends with the
note of the tumbu. In this way it is possible to create waht what has the
effect of a pause and staccato in the melody without interrupting the flow
of air created by the player's circular respiration.
The mancosedda and the mancosa manna with wich two melodies are played
at the same time can have five different combinations of notes that always
correspond to a portion of the major scale.
The arrefinu is always tuned on the note wich belongs to the tonic triad
wich is closest by descending scale to the lowest note of the melodic canes.